U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Cannabidiol is the major nonpsychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabidiol demonstrates a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties. Exact mechanism of action of cannabidiol is not known, but may include effects on the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; and the α3 glycine receptors. GW Pharmaceuticals successfully developed the world’s first prescription medicine derived from the cannabis plant, Sativex® (buccal spray containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) now approved in over 29 countries outside of the United States for the treatment of spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis. GW Pharmaceuticals is developing Epidiolex® (a liquid formulation of pure plant-derived cannabidiol) for certain rare and severe early-onset, drug-resistant epilepsy syndromes.
Elcometrine (Segesterone acetate, Nestorone) is a steroidal progestin which is used as a hormonal contraceptive and as a treatment of endometriosis. Upon oral administration, Nestorone undergoes rapid metabolism and inactivation. Several clinical trials have been performed with Nestorone administered via subdermal implants.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Migalastat (Galafold)-a small molecule drug developed by Amicus Therapeutics that restores the activity of specific mutant forms of α-galactosidase-has been approved for the treatment of Fabry disease in the EU in patients with amenable mutations. Migalastat attaches to certain unstable forms of alpha-galactosidase A, stabilising the enzyme. This allows the enzyme to be transported into areas of the cell where it can break down GL-3. Under the trade name Galafold (formerly known as Amigal), Migalastat is used to treat patients aged 16 years or over with Fabry disease. Because the number of patients with Fabry disease is low, the disease is considered ‘rare’, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assigned Galafold orphan drug status in 2004, and the European Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) followed in 2006.
Tafenoquine is anti-malaria drug originated in Walter reed army institute of research and developed by GSK and 60 Degrees Pharmaceuticals. In 2018 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved single dose tafenoquine for the radical cure (prevention of relapse) of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Tafenoquine, an 8-aminoquinoline antimalarial, is active against all the stages of Plasmodium species that include the hypnozoite (dormant stage) in the liver. Studies in vitro with the erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum suggest that tafenoquine may exert its effect by inhibiting hematin polymerization and inducing apoptotic like death of the parasite. In addition to its effect on the parasite, tafenoquine causes red blood cell shrinkage in vitro. Tafenoquine is active against pre-erythrocytic (liver) and erythrocytic (asexual) forms as well as gametocytes of Plasmodium species that include P. falciparum and P. vivax. The activity of tafenoquine against the pre-erythrocytic liver stages of the parasite, prevents the development of the erythrocytic forms of the parasite.
Omadacycline is a tetracyclin-derivative antibiotic, originated in Tufts University, and later co-developed by Merck and Paratek Pharmaceuticals. The drug was approved for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, and for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. Omadacycline tosylate is available as tablets and in injectable form.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
TPOXX by ViroPharma
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Conditions:

Tecovirimat (ST-246) is a low-molecular-weight compound (molecular weight = 376), that is potent (concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% = 0.010 microM), selective (concentration of compound that inhibited cell viability by 50% = >40 microM), and active against multiple orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, monkeypox, camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia (mousepox), and variola viruses. The antiviral activity is specific for orthopoxviruses and the compound does not inhibit the replication of other RNA- and DNA-containing viruses or inhibit cell proliferation at concentrations of compound that are antiviral. ST-246 targets vaccinia virus p37, a viral protein required for envelopment and secretion of extracellular forms of virus. The compound is orally bioavailable and protects multiple animal species from lethal orthopoxvirus challenge. rug substance and drug product processes have been developed and commercial scale batches have been produced using Good Manufacturing Processes (GMP). Human phase I clinical trials have shown that ST-246 is safe and well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. Based on the results of the clinical evaluation, once a day dosing should provide plasma drug exposure in the range predicted to be antiviral based on data from efficacy studies in animal models of orthopoxvirus disease.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
TALZENNA by LEAD Therapeutics
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



BMN-673 (8R,9S) is the (8R,9S) enantiomer of BMN-673, known as talazoparib. BMN 673 is a novel inhibitor of nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Sarecycline (SC1401, WC3035) is a novel, once-daily, tetracycline-derived compound being developed by Paratek Pharmaceuticals and Allergan (previously Actavis) for use in the treatment of acne and rosacea. In preclinical studies, Sarecycline possesses favorable anti-inflammatory activity, plus narrow-spectrum antibacterial activity relative to other tetracycline-derived molecules. Sarecycline has been used in Phase III clinical trials studying the treatment of Acne Vulgaris. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral Sarecycline 1.5 mg/kg per day compared to placebo in treating inflammatory acne lesions in subjects with moderate to severe acne. Sarecycline was statistically significantly superior to placebo with respect to primary efficacy endpoints. The most common adverse events (>2%) reported in the sarecycline group were nausea (3.2%), nasopharyngitis (2.8%), and headache (2.8%). The rate of discontinuation due to adverse events among sarecycline-treated patients in the two studies combined was 1.4%.
Rifamycin SV is a derivative of antibiotic rifamycin B (the natural fermentation product of S. mediterranei broths). The primary target of rifampicin on whole bacteria is the synthesis of RNA. Rifamycin belongs to the ansamycin class of antibacterial drugs and acts by inhibiting the beta subunit of the bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, blocking one of the steps in DNA transcription. This results in inhibition of bacterial synthesis and consequently growth of bacteria. Rifampicin exhibits bactericidal activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and on mycobacteria. Rifamycin SV MMX® (AEMCOLO), a non-absorbable rifamycin antibiotic formulated using the multi-matrix system, was designed to exhibit its pharmacological action on the distal small intestine and colon. AEMCOLO is indicated for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) caused by non-invasive strains of Escherichia coli in adults.
Revefenacin (trade name Yupelri is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist developed by Mylan Ireland ltd for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo models, prevention of methacholine- and acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstrictive effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours.