U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 101991 - 102000 of 107353 results

Status:
US Previously Marketed
Source:
21 CFR 310.545(a)(12)(iv)(A) laxative:stimulant laxative sodium oleate
Source URL:
First approved in 1992
Source:
Sha-lem by Shalem Products, Inc.
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Oleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. Oleic acid occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is a component of the normal human diet as a part of animal fats and vegetable oils. Oleic acid may be responsible for the hypotensive (blood pressure reducing) effects of olive oil. Oleic acid has being shown to have a potential anticancer activity.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
Source:
21 CFR 310.545(a)(12)(iv)(A) laxative:stimulant laxative sodium oleate
Source URL:
First approved in 1992
Source:
Sha-lem by Shalem Products, Inc.
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Oleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. Oleic acid occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is a component of the normal human diet as a part of animal fats and vegetable oils. Oleic acid may be responsible for the hypotensive (blood pressure reducing) effects of olive oil. Oleic acid has being shown to have a potential anticancer activity.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
First approved in 1992

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)



Halofantrine is a blood schizonticidal antimalarial agent with no apparent action on the sporozoite, gametocyte or hepatic stages of the infection. It is used only to treat but not to prevent malaria. Has been marketed by GlaxoSmithKline as HALFAN (halofantrine hydrochloride) in 250 mg tablets indicated for the treatment of adults who can tolerate oral medication and who have mild to moderate malaria (equal to or less than 100,000 parasites/mm3) caused by Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Among side effects is cardiac arrhythmia. It belongs to the phenanthrene class of compounds that includes quinine and lumefantrine. It was reported that halofantrine binds to hematin in vitro (crystal structure of the complex) and to to plasmpesin, a haemoglobin degrading enzyme unique to the malarial parasites.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
Source:
Omniflox by Abbott
(1992)
Source URL:
First approved in 1992
Source:
Omniflox by Abbott
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)



Temafloxacin (marketed by Abbott Laboratories as Omniflox) is almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with an absolute bioavailability of approximately 93% and is not greatly affected by food. The time to reach peak concentrations ranges between 2 and 3 hours. In addition to the broad spectrum of activity all fluoroquinolones have against gram-negative pathogens, temafloxacin has improved antimicrobial activity against gram-positive aerobic cocci, intracellular microorganisms, and anaerobes. The bactericidal action of temafloxacin results from interference with the activity of the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase. Omniflox was approved to treat lower respiratory tract infections, genital and urinary infections like prostatitis, and skin infections in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration in January 1992. Severe adverse reactions, including allergic reactions and hemolytic anemia, developed in about fifty patients during the first four months of its use, leading to three patient deaths. Abbott withdrew the drug from sale in June 1992.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
First approved in 1992

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)



Lomefloxacin hydrochloride (marketed under the following brand names in English speaking countries Maxaquin, Okacyn, Uniquin) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. It is used to treat chronic bronchitis, as well as complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections. It is also used as a prophylactic or preventative treatment to prevent urinary tract infections in patients undergoing transrectal or transurethral surgical procedures. Flouroquinolones such as lomefloxacin possess excellent activity against gram-negative aerobic bacteria such as E.coli and Neisseria gonorrhoea as well as gram-positive bacteria including S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. They also posses effective activity against shigella, salmonella, campylobacter, gonococcal organisms, and multi drug resistant pseudomonas and enterobacter. Lomefloxacin is a bactericidal fluoroquinolone agent with activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. The bactericidal action of lomefloxacin results from interference with the activity of the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which are needed for the transcription and replication of bacterial DNA. DNA gyrase appears to be the primary quinolone target for gram-negative bacteria. Topoisomerase IV appears to be the preferential target in gram-positive organisms. Interference with these two topoisomerases results in strand breakage of the bacterial chromosome, supercoiling, and resealing. As a result DNA replication and transcription is inhibited.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
First approved in 1991

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Enoxacin is an oral broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. Enoxacin is bactericidal drugs, eradicating bacteria by interfering with DNA replication. Like other fluoroquinolones, enoxacin functions by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The inhibition of these enzymes prevents bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination. Enoxacin is active against many Gram-positive bacteria. After oral administration enoxacin is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The antibiotic is widely distributed throughout the body and in the different biological tissues. Tissue concentrations often exceed serum concentrations. The binding of enoxacin to serum proteins is 35 to 40%. The serum elimination half-life, in subjects with normal renal function, is approximately 6 hours. Approximately 60% of an orally administered dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug within 24 hours. Enoxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. The compound should not be administered to patients with epilepsy or a personal history of previous convulsive attacks as may promote the onset of these disorders.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
First approved in 1991

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Loracarbef (KT3777) is carbacephem antibiotic structurally identical to cefaclor, except that the sulfur atom of position 1 of the cephem nucleus has been replaced by carbon. It showed good affinity for penicillin-binding proteins. At low concentrations (< 2 mg/L) in vitro, it inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, beta-haemolytic streptococci groups B, C and G. Proteus mirabilis and Moraxella catarrhalis, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. At therapeutic plasma concentrations it is also active in vitro against most strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Escherichia coli and beta-lactamase-positive and -negative strains of Haemophilus influenzae. Loracarbef has been indicated in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
First approved in 1990

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Pipecuronium is a piperazinyl androstane derivative, which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, which was approved under brand name arduan for injection. It is a long-acting neuromuscular blocking agent, indicated as an adjunct to general anesthesia, to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery. Arduan can also be used to provide skeletal muscle relaxation for endotracheal intubation. Pipecuronium undergoes very little metabolism and is excreted by the kidney and the liver. Owing to its relatively long duration of action and to the residual postoperative neuromuscular block (RPONB), the use of pipecuronium was discontinued in the United States and in several European countries. Because of its excellent safety profile, the use of pipecuronium has been maintained in several countries including China, Russia, Brazil, and Hungary, among others. Its safe use, however, is dependent on the availability of a reliable reversal drug. Although widely used, there are concerns with the use of neostigmine for reversal. Arduan is a powerful competitive antagonist of acetylcholine, since it can bind pre- and postsynaptic (N1) receptors of the transmitters.
Status:
US Previously Marketed
First approved in 1990

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Pipecuronium is a piperazinyl androstane derivative, which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, which was approved under brand name arduan for injection. It is a long-acting neuromuscular blocking agent, indicated as an adjunct to general anesthesia, to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery. Arduan can also be used to provide skeletal muscle relaxation for endotracheal intubation. Pipecuronium undergoes very little metabolism and is excreted by the kidney and the liver. Owing to its relatively long duration of action and to the residual postoperative neuromuscular block (RPONB), the use of pipecuronium was discontinued in the United States and in several European countries. Because of its excellent safety profile, the use of pipecuronium has been maintained in several countries including China, Russia, Brazil, and Hungary, among others. Its safe use, however, is dependent on the availability of a reliable reversal drug. Although widely used, there are concerns with the use of neostigmine for reversal. Arduan is a powerful competitive antagonist of acetylcholine, since it can bind pre- and postsynaptic (N1) receptors of the transmitters.
Levamisole (the trade name Ergamisol), an anthelminthic drug with immunological properties. It also has antitumor activity when administered with 5-fluorouracil in patients with Duke's C colorectal carcinoma; however, this use was discontinued. The mechanism of the antitumor effect is unknown but has been postulated to be related to levamisole's immunomodulatory properties. Levamisole can stimulate antibody formation to various antigens, enhance T-cell responses by stimulating T-cell activation and proliferation, potentiate monocyte and macrophage functions including phagocytosis, chemotaxis and increases motility, adherence, and chemotaxis. Levamisole inhibits alkaline phosphatase and possesses cholinergic activity. The mechanism of action of levamisole as an antiparasitic agent, for example, to treat ascariasis, relates to its agonistic activity to L-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in nematode muscles. In addition, levamisole was studied for preventing relapses of the steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (SSINS). It was shown, that alone or in combination with steroids, the drug can prolong the time to relapse and prevented recurrence during one year of treatment. However, these studies also were also discontinued.

Showing 101991 - 102000 of 107353 results