U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 1371 - 1380 of 2250 results

Benztropine is an anticholinergic used in the symptomatic treatment of all etiologic groups of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions (except tardive dyskinesia). Benztropine possesses both anticholinergic and antihistaminic effects, although only the former has been established as therapeutically significant in the management of parkinsonism. Benztropine's anticholinergic activity is about equal to that of atropine. Benztropine also inhibits dopamine reuptake via the dopamine transporter at nerve terminals. Benztropine is a selective M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. It is able to discriminate between the M1 (cortical or neuronal) and the peripheral muscarinic subtypes (cardiac and glandular). Benztropine partially blocks cholinergic activity in the CNS, which is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It is also thought to increase the availability of dopamine, a brain chemical that is critical in the initiation and smooth control of voluntary muscle movement. Used as an adjunct in the therapy of all forms of parkinsonism and also for use in the control of extrapyramidal disorders due to neuroleptic drugs.
Iodipamide is used as a contrast agent for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography. Following intravenous administration of Cholografin Meglumine, iodipamide is carried to the liver where it is rapidly secreted. The contrast medium appears in the bile within 10 to 15 minutes after injection, thus permitting visualization of the hepatic and common bile ducts, even in cholecystectomized patients. Iodipamide (Cholografin Meglumine) is indicated for intravenous cholangiography and cholecystography as follows: (a) visualization of the gallbladder and biliary ducts in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal conditions, (b) visualization of the biliary ducts, especially in patients with symptoms after cholecystectomy, and (c) visualization of the gallbladder in patients unable to take oral contrast media or to absorb contrast media from the gastrointestinal tract. The biliary ducts are readily visualized within about 25 minutes after administration, except in patients with impaired liver function. The gallbladder begins to fill within an hour after injection; maximum filling is reached after two to two and one-half hours. Organic iodine compounds block x-rays as they pass through the body, thereby allowing body structures containing iodine to be delineated in contrast to those structures that do not contain iodine. The degree of opacity produced by these iodinated organic compounds is directly proportional to the total amount (concentration and volume) of the iodinated contrast agent in the path of the x-rays. Iodipamide's primary excretion through the hepato-biliary system and concentration in bile allows visualization of the gallbladder and biliary ducts.
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzoic acids. These are benzoic acids containing an amine group attached to the benzene moiety. A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. Used, alone or in combination, for a wide variety of diagnostic imaging methods, including angiography, urography, cholangiography, computed tomography, hysterosalpingography, and retrograde pyelography. It can be used for imaging the gastrointestinal tract in patients allergic to barium. Radiopaque agents are drugs used to help diagnose certain medical problems. They contain iodine, which blocks x-rays. Depending on how the radiopaque agent is given, it localizes or builds up in certain areas of the body. The resulting high level of iodine allows the x-rays to make a "picture" of the area. The areas of the body in which the radiopaque agent localizes will appear white on the x-ray film. This creates the needed distinction, or contrast, between one organ and other tissues.
Pentolinium (brand name Ansolysen) is a ganglionic cholinergic antagonist, acting on alpha 3 beta 4 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It was used as an antihypertensive drug during surgery or to control hypertensive crises, but Ansolysen was discontinued. Pentolinium inhibits release of adrenaline and noradrenaline from adrenergic nerves.
Busulfan is a bifunctional alkylating agent, having a selective immunosuppressive effect on bone marrow. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (myeloid leukemia, chronic). Most common adverse reactions (incidence greater than 60%) were: myelosuppression, nausea, stomatitis, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, insomnia, fever, hypomagnesemia, abdominal pain, anxiety, headache, hyperglycemia and hypokalemia. Itraconazole and acetaminophen can decrease busulfan clearance. Phenytoin increases hepatic clearance of busulfan.
Warfarin is an anticoagulant drug normally used to prevent blood clot formation as well as migration. Warfarin is marketed under the brand name Coumadin among others. Coumadin (crystalline warfarin sodium) is an anticoagulant which acts by inhibiting vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Chemically, it is 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin and is a racemic mixture of the R- and S-enantiomers. Coumadin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, and pulmonary embolism. It is also indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of the thromboembolic complications associated with atrial fibrillation and/or cardiac valve replacement. Warfarin is thought to interfere with clotting factor synthesis by inhibition of the C1 subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) enzyme complex, thereby reducing the regeneration of vitamin K1 epoxide. The degree of depression is dependent upon the dosage administered and, in part, by the patient’s VKORC1 genotype. Therapeutic doses of warfarin decrease the total amount of the active form of each vitamin K dependent clotting factor made by the liver by approximately 30% to 50%.
Chlorpromazine is a psychotropic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. It also exerts sedative and antiemetic activity. Chlorpromazine has actions at all levels of the central nervous system-primarily at subcortical levels-as well as on multiple organ systems. Chlorpromazine has strong antiadrenergic and weaker peripheral anticholinergic activity; ganglionic blocking action is relatively slight. It also possesses slight antihistaminic and antiserotonin activity. Chlorpromazine acts as an antagonist (blocking agent) on different postsysnaptic receptors -on dopaminergic-receptors (subtypes D1, D2, D3 and D4 - different antipsychotic properties on productive and unproductive symptoms), on serotonergic-receptors (5-HT1 and 5-HT2, with anxiolytic, antidepressive and antiaggressive properties as well as an attenuation of extrapypramidal side-effects, but also leading to weight gain, fall in blood pressure, sedation and ejaculation difficulties), on histaminergic-receptors (H1-receptors, sedation, antiemesis, vertigo, fall in blood pressure and weight gain), alpha1/alpha2-receptors (antisympathomimetic properties, lowering of blood pressure, reflex tachycardia, vertigo, sedation, hypersalivation and incontinence as well as sexual dysfunction, but may also attenuate pseudoparkinsonism - controversial) and finally on muscarinic (cholinergic) M1/M2-receptors (causing anticholinergic symptoms like dry mouth, blurred vision, obstipation, difficulty/inability to urinate, sinus tachycardia, ECG-changes and loss of memory, but the anticholinergic action may attenuate extrapyramidal side-effects). Additionally, Chlorpromazine is a weak presynaptic inhibitor of Dopamine reuptake, which may lead to (mild) antidepressive and antiparkinsonian effects. Chlorpromazine has being marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others. Chlorpromazine is used for treating certain mental or mood disorders (eg, schizophrenia), the manic phase of manic-depressive disorder, anxiety and restlessness before surgery, the blood disease porphyria, severe behavioral and conduct disorders in children, nausea and vomiting, and severe hiccups.
Furadantin (nitrofurantoin), a synthetic chemical, is a stable, yellow, crystalline compound. Furadantin is an antibacterial agent for specific urinary tract infections. Orally administered Furadantin is readily absorbed and rapidly excreted in urine. Blood concentrations at therapeutic dosage are usually low. Unlike many drugs, the presence of food or agents delaying gastric emptying can increase the bioavailability of Furadantin, presumably by allowing better dissolution in gastric juices. Nitrofurantoin is active against some gram positive organisms such as S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, S. agalactiae, group D streptococci, viridians streptococci and Corynebacterium. Its spectrum of activity against gram negative organisms includes E. coli, Enterobacter, Neisseria, Salmonella and Shigella. It may be used as an alternative to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for treating urinary tract infections though it may be less effective at eradicating vaginal bacteria. May also be used in females as prophylaxis against recurrent cystitis related to coitus. Nitrofurantoin is highly stable to the development of bacterial resistance, a property thought to be due to its multiplicity of mechanisms of action. Nitrofurantoin is activated by bacterial flavoproteins (nitrofuran reductase) to active reduced reactive intermediates that are thought to modulate and damage ribosomal proteins or other macromolecules, especially DNA, causing inhibition of DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall synthesis. The overall effect is inhibition of bacterial growth or cell death.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)


Conditions:

Merethoxylline is a mercurial diuretic. As an equimolar mixture of merethoxylline procaine and theophylline in the molecular proportion 1:1.4 (DICURIN PROCAINE, Lilly) has been used in the treatment of oedema and ascites. The procaine component helps in reducing the discomfort of local irritation caused by mercurial compound when injected into tissues.

Showing 1371 - 1380 of 2250 results