U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 1381 - 1390 of 2250 results

Methotrexate is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances becoming incorporated in to DNA during the "S" phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Methotrexate inhibits folic acid reductase which is responsible for the conversion of folic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid. At two stages in the biosynthesis of purines and at one stage in the synthesis of pyrimidines, one-carbon transfer reactions occur which require specific coenzymes synthesized in the cell from tetrahydrofolic acid. Tetrahydrofolic acid itself is synthesized in the cell from folic acid with the help of an enzyme, folic acid reductase. Methotrexate looks a lot like folic acid to the enzyme, so it binds to it quite strongly and inhibits the enzyme. Thus, DNA synthesis cannot proceed because the coenzymes needed for one-carbon transfer reactions are not produced from tetrahydrofolic acid because there is no tetrahydrofolic acid. Methotrexate selectively affects the most rapidly dividing cells (neoplastic and psoriatic cells). Methotrexate is indicated in the treatment of gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens and hydatidiform mole. In acute lymphocytic leukemia, methotrexate is indicated in the prophylaxis of meningeal leukemia and is used in maintenance therapy in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Methotrexate is also indicated in the treatment of meningeal leukemia. Methotrexate is used alone or in combination with other anticancer agents in the treatment of breast cancer, epidermoid cancers of the head and neck, advanced mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T cell lymphoma), and lung cancer, particularly squamous cell and small cell types. Methotrexate is also used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of advanced stage non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Methotrexate is indicated in the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis. Methotrexate is indicated in the management of selected adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis (ACR criteria), or children with active polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Phenoxybenzamin (marketed under the trade name Dibenzyline) is an alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It is indicated in the treatment of pheochromocytoma, to control episodes of hypertension and sweating. If tachycardia is excessive, it may be necessary to use a beta-blocking agent concomitantly. Phenoxybenzamine produces its therapeutic actions by blocking alpha receptors, leading to a muscle relaxation and a widening of the blood vessels. This widening of the blood vessels results in a lowering of blood pressure. Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride can produce and maintain “chemical sympathectomy” by oral administration. It increases blood flow to the skin, mucosa and abdominal viscera, and lowers both supine and erect blood pressures. It has no effect on the parasympathetic system. Twenty to percent of orally administered phenoxybenzamine appears to be absorbed in the active form. The half-life of orally administered phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride is not known; however, the half-life of intravenously administered drug is approximately 24 hours. Demonstrable effects with intravenous administration persist for at least 3 to 4 days, and the effects of daily administration are cumulative for nearly a week. The following adverse reactions have been observed, but there are insufficient data to support an estimate of their frequency: Postural hypotension, tachycardia, inhibition of ejaculation, nasal congestion, and miosis. These so-called “side effects” are actually evidence of adrenergic blockade and vary according to the degree of blockade. Miscellaneous: Gastrointestinal irritation, drowsiness, fatigue.
Mercaptopurine, marketed under the brand name Purinethol among others, is a medication used for cancer and autoimmune diseases. Mercaptopurine competes with hypoxanthine and guanine for the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRTase) and is itself converted to thioinosinic acid (TIMP). This intracellular nucleotide inhibits several reactions involving inosinic acid (IMP), including the conversion of IMP to xanthylic acid (XMP) and the conversion of IMP to adenylic acid (AMP) via adenylosuccinate (SAMP). In addition, 6-methylthioinosinate (MTIMP) is formed by the methylation of TIMP. Both TIMP and MTIMP have been reported to inhibit glutamine-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, the first enzyme unique to the de novo pathway for purine ribonucleotide synthesis. Experiments indicate that radiolabeled mercaptopurine may be recovered from the DNA in the form of deoxythioguanosine. Some mercaptopurine is converted to nucleotide derivatives of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) by the sequential actions of inosinate (IMP) dehydrogenase and xanthylate (XMP) aminase, converting TIMP to thioguanylic acid (TGMP). PURINETHOL (mercaptopurine) is indicated for maintenance therapy of acute lymphatic (lymphocytic, lymphoblastic) leukemia as part of a combination regimen. The response to this agent depends upon the particular subclassification of acute lymphatic leukemia and the age of the patient (pediatric or adult).
Acetazolamide, usually sold under the trade name Diamox in some countries. DIAMOX is used for adjunctive treatment of: chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, and preoperatively in acute angle-closure glaucoma where delay of surgery is desired in order to lower intraocular pressure. DIAMOX is also indicated for the prevention or amelioration of symptoms associated with acute mountain sickness despite gradual ascent. DIAMOX is an enzyme inhibitor that acts specifically on carbonic anhydrase, the enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction involving the hydration of carbon dioxide and the dehydration of carbonic acid. In the eye, this inhibitory action of acetazolamide decreases the secretion of aqueous humor and results in a drop in intraocular pressure, a reaction considered desirable in cases of glaucoma and even in certain non-glaucomatous conditions. Evidence seems to indicate that DIAMOX has utility as an adjuvant in treatment of certain dysfunctions of the central nervous system (e.g., epilepsy). The diuretic effect of DIAMOX is due to its action in the kidney on the reversible reaction involving hydration of carbon dioxide and dehydration of carbonic acid. The result is renal loss of HCO3 ion, which carries out sodium, water, and potassium. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system.
Proparacaine is a topical anesthetic drug of the amino ester group. It is available as its hydrochloride salt in ophthalmic solutions at a concentration of 0.5%. Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution is indicated for procedures in which a topical ophthalmic anesthetic is indicated: corneal anesthesia of short duration, e.g. tonometry, gonioscopy, removal of corneal foreign bodies, and for short corneal and conjunctival procedures. Proparacaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses thereby effecting local anesthetic action. More specifically, proparacaine appears to bind or antagonize the function of voltage gated sodium channels. The exact mechanism whereby proparacaine and other local anesthetics influence the permeability of the cell membrane is unknown; however, several studies indicate that local anesthetics may limit sodium ion permeability through the lipid layer of the nerve cell membrane. Proparacaine may alter epithelial sodium channels through interaction with channel protein residues. This limitation prevents the fundamental change necessary for the generation of the action potential.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)

Conditions:

Phensuximide is an anticonvulsant in the succinimide class. For the treatment of epilepsy. Phensuximide suppresses the paroxysmal three cycle per second spike and wave EEG pattern associated with lapses of consciousness in absence (petit mal) seizures. The frequency of attacks is reduced by depression of nerve transmission in the motor cortex. Phensuximide's mechanism of action not understood, but may act in inhibitory neuronal systems that are important in the generation of the three per second rhythm. It's effects may be related to its ability to inhibit depolarization-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in brain tissue.
Status:
First approved in 1953

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Status:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Conditions:

Oxybuprocaine (benoxinate) hydrochloride (MINIMS®) is a local, surface anaesthetic of the ester type. It has been shown to give effective surface anaesthesia in short opthalmological procedures. Sensation of pain is locally and reversibly reduced, with the possibility of temperature and pressure sensitivity also affected. Anaesthetic activity is ten times that of cocaine and twice that of tetracaine (amethocaine). Oxybuprocaine (benoxinate) binds to sodium channel and reversibly stabilizes the neuronal membrane which decreases its permeability to sodium ions. Depolarization of the neuronal membrane is inhibited thereby blocking the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses.
Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid, is used in dentistry and orthodontics to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings will be placed. In addition, this acid is a part of product ProcalAmine, which is indicated for peripheral administration in adults to preserve body protein and improve nitrogen balance in well-nourished, mildly catabolic patients who require short-term parenteral nutrition. In combination with dextrose (glucose) and levulose (fructose), phosphoric acid relieves nausea due to upset stomach from intestinal flu, stomach flu, and food or drink indiscretions. In addition, homeopathic product, Brain power contains also phosphoric acid and this product is used to temporarily relieve symptoms of general physical weakness and listlessness, including: fatigue; sore muscles & joints; dry skin; absence of sexual desire; occasional sleeplessness.
Diphenylpyraline is an antihistamine that prevents but does not reverse, responses mediated by histamine alone. Diphenylpyraline antagonizes most of the pharmacological effects of histamine, including urticaria and pruritus. Also, diphenylpyraline may exhibit anticholinergic actions (as do most of the antihistamines) and may thus provide a drying effect on the nasal mucosa. Antihistamines such as diphenylpyraline used in the treatment of allergy act by competing with histamine for H1-receptor sites on effector cells. This reduces the effects of histamine, leading to a temporary reduction of allergy symptoms.

Showing 1381 - 1390 of 2250 results