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Showing 11 - 20 of 107352 results

Triclabendazole, (brand name Avomec, Egaten, etc) is a member of the benzimidazole family of anthelmintics used to treat liver flukes, specifically fascioliasis and paragonimiasis. Triclabendazole used routinely since 1983 in veterinary practice for the treatment of fascioliasis. It was not used in humans until the 1989 epidemic of fascioliasis near the Caspian Sea when Iranian authorities approved the use of the veterinary formulation to treat the infection. Fasciolicidal not only against the adult worms present in the biliary ducts, but also against the immature larval stages of Fasciola migrating through the hepatic parenchyma. Triclabendazole is shown to penetrate into liver flukes by transtegumentary absorption followed by inhibition of the parasite's motility, probably related to the destruction of the microtubular structure, resulting in the death of the parasite; the immobilizing effect is paralleled by changes in the parasite's resting tegumental membrane potential, strongly inhibiting the release of proteolytic enzymes, a process that appears critical to the survival of the parasite. Side effects are generally few, but can include abdominal pain and headaches. Biliary colic may occur due to dying worms. While no harms have been found with use during pregnancy, triclabendazole has not been well studied in this population. Triclabendazole is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is not commercially available in the United States.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Fluorodopa F-18 is the amino acid analog fluorodopa (FDOPA) labeled with fluorine F 18, a positron-emitting isotope. It is diagnostic PET agent, which has been used for decades in imaging the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, and more recently to detect, stage and restage neuroendocrine tumours and to search for recurrence of viable glioma tissue. Fluorodopa F-18 is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by brain tumor cells. As uptake is higher in tumor cells, tumors may then be imaged using positron emission tomography (PET). Assessing tumor uptake of FDOPA may be beneficial for diagnosis, localization and in determining further treatment. The clinical usefulness of Fluorodopa F-18 has been evaluated and recognised in France and subsequently in several EU countries. Fluorodopa F-18 was registered in France in 2006. 6-fluoro-(18F)-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (FDOPA) is a large, neutral amino acid that is transported into presynaptic neurons, where it is converted by the enzyme aromatic aminoacid decarboxylase [AAAD]) into fluorodopamine-(18F), which subsequently enters cathecholamine-storage vesicles. 6-fluoro(18F)-L-dopa crosses the blood-brain barrier; therefore, when injected into the blood stream, it reaches the dopaminergic cells in the brain and is used by the brain as a precursor for dopamine. This makes it possible to monitor intracerebral synthesis and uptake of dopamine by means of the positron-emitting 6-fluoro(18F)-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (FDOPA), in conjunction with externally-placed devices suited for detection of annihilation photons, which progressively led to the most recent positron emission tomography (PET) units. Iasodopa, the commercial preparation of FDOPA that obtained a marketing authorisation in France in November 2006 (which is currently recognised by several other EU countries), is a solution for injection. The activity available at time of administration ranges from 0.1 GBq to 0.8 GBq per vial. The half-life of the radionuclide is 109.8 min with emission of positron radiation (Emax: 0.633 MeV) followed by photon annihilation radiations of 0.511 MeV.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Levalmodipine (S-amlodipine) is an active enantiomer of amlodipine, a calcium antagonist that inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. Experimental data suggest that S-amlodipine binds to both dihydropyridine and nondihydropyridine binding sites. The contractile processes of cardiac muscle and vascular smooth muscle are dependent upon the movement of extracellular calcium ions into these cells through specific ion channels. S-Amlodipine inhibits calcium ion influx across cell membranes selectively, with a greater effect on vascular smooth muscle cells than on cardiac muscle cells. Enantiomerically pure S-amlodipine is marketed in some countries worldwide, while racemate, containing active S-enantiomer an inactive R-enantiomer is marketed in the USA and indicated for the treatment of hypertension and coronary artery disease.
Fedratinib (SAR-302503, TG-101348) is a selective small-molecule inhibitor of Janus kinase-2. Fedratinib demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of myeloproliferative disease. Sanofi was developing Fedratinib for the treatment of myeloproliferative diseases and solid tumors. The clinical development of fedratinib was terminated after reports of Wernicke's encephalopathy in myelofibrosis patients.
ADX-N05, originally discovered by SK Holdings, is a selective dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (DNRI). ADX-N05 (Solriamfetol, sold under the brand name Sunosi) is approved in the US and is under regulatory review in the EU to improve wakefulness in adult patients with hypersomnia associated with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnoea.The US FDA has approved solriamfetol (Sunosi, Jazz Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in adults with narcolepsy or obstructive sleep apnea.The dual-acting dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor is approved for narcolepsy in once-daily 75 mg and 150 mg doses, and in obstructive sleep apnea in once-daily 37.5 mg, 75 mg, and 150 mg doses.
Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid metabolite of progesterone. It is an allosteric modulator of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors on neural stem cells and other cell types in the brain. Allopregnanolone has effects similar to those of other positive allosteric modulators of the GABA action at GABAA receptor such as the benzodiazepines, including anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity. A solution of allopregnanolone, SAGE-547 is an intravenous allosteric modulator of both synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)receptors. It's believed that allopregnanolone is effective as an anticonvulsant when prolonged seizure activity has become resistant to benzodiazepine treatment. Under the names brexanolone and SAGE-547, allopregnanolone is under development by SAGE Therapeutics as an intravenously administered drug for the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus, postpartum depression, and essential tremor. Allopregnanolone is in phase III trials for the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) and postpartum depression.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Relebactum sodium (MK-7655) is a piperidine analog 3 that inhibits class A and C β-lactamases (in vitro). It is being investigated for use in treatment of infectious diseases, such as treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. Its potential as an alternative to existing medicines in the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections is being studied. Clinical trials have been conducted and are still ongoing to evaluate the efficacy and safety of relebactum sodium in treatment of intra-abdominal infections, urinary tract infections (such as pyelonephritis), hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonias, and gram-negative bacterial infections.
Erdafitinib (JNJ-42756493) is a potent and selective orally bioavailable, pan fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. It was discovered in collaboration with Janssen Pharmaceutica, N.V. from a partnership which commenced in June 2008. Astex’s FGFr inhibitor program originated from a collaboration initiated in 2005 with the Cancer Research UK Drug Discovery Group at the Newcastle Cancer Centre (Newcastle University UK), and Cancer Research Technology Limited. JNJ42756493 is currently being evaluated by Janssen in Phase 2 clinical trials in patients with urothelial cancer, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced non-small lung cancer, esophageal cancer or cholangiocarcinoma. JNJ-42756493 is a potent, oral pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values in the low nanomolar range for all members of the FGFR family (FGFR1 to FGFR4), with minimal activity on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) kinases compared with FGFR kinases (approximately 20-fold potency difference). In vitro, the proliferation of cells treated with JNJ-42756493 is decreased, associated with increased apoptotic death and decreased cell survival. It is also in phase I trials for the treatment of advanced refractory solid tumors or advanced refractory hematologic cancer.
Alpelisib (BYL719) is a PI3Kα-selective inhibitor. PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway is frequently activated in cancer, therefore investigational PI3K inhibitor alpelisib is considered to be effective as an anticancer agent and has been in clinical development by Novartis. Alpelisib have demonstrated activity in preclinical models of solid tumors and had favorable tolerability profiles, with the most common adverse events consistent with “on-target” inhibition of PI3K in early clinical studies. There are ongoing clinical trials of alpelisib in a range of cancer types, including breast cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, lymphoma, and glioblastoma multiforme. Combination therapy with other chemo therapeutics may be preferable.