U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 21 - 30 of 2572 results

Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
DAURISMO by Pfizer
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



PF-04449913 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the Hh signaling pathway through binding to the target, smoothened. PF-04449913 inhibits Hh signaling in vitro and has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in vivo. In the clinic, PF-04449913 is being evaluated both in hematological and solid malignancies, with a phase II trial currently underway in both fit and unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Treatment-related adverse-events were nausea, dizziness, somnolence, QT prolongation and pruritus. Based on pre-clinical assessments, CYP3A4 is believed to be primarily involved in the metabolism of PF-04449913 that is why PF-04449913 plasma exposures and peak concentrations were increased following concurrent administration of ketoconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor).
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
ERLEADA by University of California
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Apalutamide (developmental code name ARN-509) is a selective and competitive androgen receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 16 nM, useful for prostate cancer treatment. Apalutamide binds to AR in target tissues thereby preventing androgen-induced receptor activation and facilitating the formation of inactive complexes that cannot be translocated to the nucleus. This prevents binding to and transcription of AR-responsive genes. This ultimately inhibits the expression of genes that regulate prostate cancer cell proliferation and may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in AR-expressing tumor cells. Apalutamide is currently in phase III clinical trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Lorlatinib is an investigational medicine that inhibits the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 proto-oncogene. Lorlatinib was specifically designed to inhibit tumor mutations that drive resistance to other ALK inhibitors. Lorlatinib has in vitro activity against ALK and number of other tyrosine kinase receptor related targets including ROS1, TYK1, FER, FPS, TRKA, TRKB, TRKC, FAK, FAK2, and ACK. Lorlatinib demonstrated in vitro activity against multiple mutant forms of the ALK enzyme, including some mutations detected in tumors at the time of disease progression on crizotinib and other ALK inhibitors. Moreover, lorlatinib possesses the capability to cross the blood-brain barrier, allowing it to reach and treat progressive or worsening brain metastases as well. Lorlatinib is a third-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) indicated for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has progressed on a) the prior use of crizotinib and at least one other ALK inhibitor for metastatic disease, or b) the prior use of alectinib as the first ALK inhibitor therapy for metastatic disease, or c) the prior use of certinib as the first ALK inhibitor therapy for metastatic disease.
Revefenacin (trade name Yupelri is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist developed by Mylan Ireland ltd for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo models, prevention of methacholine- and acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstrictive effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours.
Amifampridine (Firdapse), currently approved in the European Union, is the first and only approved drug for the symptomatic treatment of Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS) in adults, a rare autoimmune disease with the primary symptoms of muscle weakness. In LEMS, the body’s own immune system attacks connections between nerves and muscles and disrupts the ability of nerve cells to send signals to muscle cells. Amifampridine blocks voltage-dependent potassium channels, thereby prolonging pre-synaptic cell membrane depolarization. Prolonging the action potential enhances the transport of calcium into the nerve ending. The resulting increase in intracellular calcium concentrations facilitates exocytosis of acetylcholine containing vesicles, which in turn enhances neuromuscular transmission. Amifampridine phosphate has been granted Orphan Drug Designation and Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS).
Rifamycin SV is a derivative of antibiotic rifamycin B (the natural fermentation product of S. mediterranei broths). The primary target of rifampicin on whole bacteria is the synthesis of RNA. Rifamycin belongs to the ansamycin class of antibacterial drugs and acts by inhibiting the beta subunit of the bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, blocking one of the steps in DNA transcription. This results in inhibition of bacterial synthesis and consequently growth of bacteria. Rifampicin exhibits bactericidal activity on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and on mycobacteria. Rifamycin SV MMX® (AEMCOLO), a non-absorbable rifamycin antibiotic formulated using the multi-matrix system, was designed to exhibit its pharmacological action on the distal small intestine and colon. AEMCOLO is indicated for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) caused by non-invasive strains of Escherichia coli in adults.
Dacomitinib is an oral, once-daily, pan-HER inhibitor. It is an irreversible inhibitor of HER-1 (EGFR), HER-2 and HER-4 tyrosine kinases. Dacomtinib is being evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials against nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Direct comparison with erlotinib did not show superiority of dacomtinib, but subgroup analysis have demonstrated that subgroup with exon 19 deletion had favorable outcomes with dacomitinib. In addition to nonsmall-cell lung cancer dacomtinib is being evaluated against esophagus, head and neck and other neoplasms. Due to its ability to pass through blood-brain barrier, dacomitinib can be used to treat brain tumors.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Lusutrombopag (trade name Mulpleta) is an orally bioavailable, small molecule thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist being developed by Shionogi for chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with thrombocytopenia prior to elective invasive surgery. Lusutrombopag acts selectively on the human TPO receptor and activates signal transduction pathways that promote the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow cells into megakaryocytes, thereby increasing platelet levels. In September 2015, Lusutrombopag received its first global approval in Japan for the improvement of CLD-associated thrombocytopenia in patients scheduled to undergo elective invasive procedures. Oral Lusutrombopag is rapidly absorbed, with a median time to maximum serum concentration (Tmax) of 3.8–4.0 h in healthy subjects administered single doses of oral Lusutrombopag 1, 2 or 4 mg, and 6 h in CLD patients with thrombocytopenia administered oral Lusutrombopag 3 mg once daily for 7 days. The major metabolic pathway for Lusutrombopag appears to be omega- and beta-oxidation. Lusutrombopag is a substrate of breast cancer resistance protein and P-glycoprotein, according to in vitro data.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
COPIKTRA by Takeda Pharmaceutical
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Duvelisib (IPI-145), is an orally available, small-molecule, selective dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) δ and γ isoforms originated by Intellikine (owned by Takeda) and developed by Infinity Pharmaceuticals. Orally administered duvelisib was rapidly absorbed, with a dose-proportional increase in exposure. The compound produced a half-life of approximately 7-12 hours, following 14 days of dosing. Duvelisib exerts profound effects on adaptive and innate immunity by inhibiting B and T cell proliferation, blocking neutrophil migration, and inhibiting basophil activation. Duvelisib blockade of PI3K-δ and PI3K-γ potentially lead to significant therapeutic effects in multiple inflammatory, autoimmune, and hematologic diseases. The molecule is in phase III development as a combination therapy for patients with haematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
LUTATHERA by BioSynthema
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Lutetium Lu 177 dotatate binds to somatostatin receptors with highest affinity for subtype 2 receptors (SSRT2). Upon binding to somatostatin receptor expressing cells, including malignant somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, the compound is internalized. The beta emission from Lu 177 induces cellular damage by formation of free radicals in somatostatin receptor-positive cells and in neighboring cells. LUTATHERA® (lutetium Lu 177 dotatate) is indicated for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), including foregut, midgut, and hindgut neuroendocrine tumors in adults.