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Showing 31 - 40 of 2250 results

Fostamatinib is a pro-drug of a Syk inhibitor R406 initially developed by Rigel Pharmaceuticals, but then in-licensed by AstraZeneca. It reached phase III of clinical trials for such diseases as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura, however AstraZeneca decided not to proceed with regulatory filings and return the rights to the compound to Rigel Pharmaceuticals, which is now developing the drug for indications like Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (phase II) and IgA Nephropathy (phase II) and Immune Thrombocytopenia (phase III).
Moxidectin is a semi-synthetic methoxime derivative of LL F-2924α, commonly referred as F-alpha or nemadectin F-alpha is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces cyaneogriseus subsp. noncyanogenus, a bacterial organism isolated in 1983 from a sample of sand from Victoria, Australia. Moxidectin is a potent, broad-spectrum endectocide with activity against a wide range of nematodes, insects and acari. The compound acts by binding to ligand-gated chloride channels, more specifically the subtypes that are gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) mediated and glutamate-gated. The consequence of Moxidectin binding and activation is an increased permeability, leading to an influx of chloride ions and flaccid paralysis of the parasite leading to death. The macrocyclic lactones probably act by binding to and opening glutamate-gated chloride channels found only in neurons and myocytes of invertebrates. Because moxidectin is very lipophilic, it becomes highly concentrated in the serum. When the concentration of moxidectin in the serum is high, moxidectin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Once it is in the central nervous system, a macrocyclic lactone stimulates the synaptic secretion of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. By binding at the receptor site, GABA causes influx of chloride ions into neurons, causing the neurons to become hyperpolarised, which in turn, causes diminution in neuronal activity, resulting in sedation and relaxation of the skeletal muscles. Signs displayed by foals with moxidectin toxicity included dyspnoea, depression, ataxia, weakness, coma and seizures. In a Phase 3 study compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of moxidectin and ivermectin in subjects infected with Onchocerca volvulus, which is the parasite that causes river blindness.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Lusutrombopag (trade name Mulpleta) is an orally bioavailable, small molecule thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist being developed by Shionogi for chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with thrombocytopenia prior to elective invasive surgery. Lusutrombopag acts selectively on the human TPO receptor and activates signal transduction pathways that promote the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow cells into megakaryocytes, thereby increasing platelet levels. In September 2015, Lusutrombopag received its first global approval in Japan for the improvement of CLD-associated thrombocytopenia in patients scheduled to undergo elective invasive procedures. Oral Lusutrombopag is rapidly absorbed, with a median time to maximum serum concentration (Tmax) of 3.8–4.0 h in healthy subjects administered single doses of oral Lusutrombopag 1, 2 or 4 mg, and 6 h in CLD patients with thrombocytopenia administered oral Lusutrombopag 3 mg once daily for 7 days. The major metabolic pathway for Lusutrombopag appears to be omega- and beta-oxidation. Lusutrombopag is a substrate of breast cancer resistance protein and P-glycoprotein, according to in vitro data.
Stiripentol is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy. It recently proved to increase the GABAergic transmission in vitro in an experimental model of immature rat. Clinical studies were based on the fact that STP also acts as an inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 in vivo in epileptic patients. Side effects are largely due to the increase in plasma concentrations of other anticonvulsants and can be reduced by lowering the dose of those drugs. Nausea and vomiting are particularly noted when used in combination with sodium valproate. It appears to increase the potency of phenobarbital, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, clobazam and diazepam.
Binimetinib (MEK162) is an oral small-molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. It is a selective mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, a key protein kinase in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, which regulates several key cellular activities including proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival and angiogenesis. Inappropriate activation of this pathway has been shown to occur in many cancers, in particular through mutations in BRAF, KRAS and NRAS. MEK162 at 6 mg/kg, BID combined with BEZ235 (dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth in immunodeficient mice injected with MCF7 cells. There are three ongoing Phase 3 trials with binimetinib in advanced cancer patients: NEMO (NRAS-mutant melanoma), COLUMBUS (encorafenib in combination with binimetinib in BRAF-mutant melanoma) and BEACON CRC (encorafenib, binimetinib and cetuximab in BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer).
Encorafenib, known as LGX818, is an orally available mutated BRaf V600E inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity, which was developed by Novartis. LGX818 possesses selective anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity in cells expressing BRAFV600E. In the A375 (BRAFV600E) human melanoma cell line LGX818 suppresses phospho-ERK (EC50 = 3 nM) leading to potent inhibition of proliferation (EC50 = 4 nM). No significant activity was observed against a panel of 100 kinases (IC50 > 900 nM) and LGX818 did not inhibit proliferation of > 400 cell lines expressing wild-type BRAF. This drug is in the phase III clinical trials for the treatment Melanoma and in combination therapy, Encorafenib in phase III for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and in phase II for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.
Netarsudil ophthalmic solution (Rhopressa) is a Rho kinase inhibitor for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. As of December 18, 2017 the FDA approved Aerie Pharmaceutical's Rhopressa (netarsudil ophthalmic solution) 0.02% for the indication of reducing elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Acting as both a rho kinase inhibitor and a norepinephrine transport inhibitor, Netarsudil is a novel glaucoma medication in that it specifically targets the conventional trabecular pathway of aqueous humour outflow to act as an inhibitor to the rho kinase and norepinephrine transporters found there as opposed to affecting protaglandin F2-alpha analog like mechanisms in the unconventional uveoscleral pathway that many other glaucoma medications demonstrate.