U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 51 - 60 of 2250 results

Niraparib (MK-4827) displays excellent PARP 1 and 2 inhibition. Inhibition of PARP in the context of defects in other DNA repair mechanisms provide a tumor specific way to kill cancer cells. Niraparib is in development with TESARO, under licence from Merck & Co, for the treatment of cancers (ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma). Niraparib was characterized in a number of preclinical models before moving to phase I clinical trials, where it showed excellent human pharmacokinetics suitable for once a day oral dosing, achieved its pharmacodynamic target for PARP inhibition, and had promising activity in cancer patients. It is currently being tested in phase 3 clinical trials as maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer and as a treatment for breast cancer.
Neratinib (HKI-272) is a pan-HER inhibitor, this irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor binds and inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptors, EGFR (or HER1), HER2 and HER4, which leads to reduced phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Neratinib is a modified form of the discontinued compound pelitinib, and was originally being develoAdditionally, phase II development of oral neratinib as a neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer, as a second-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer, and for other solid tumours is also in progress in numerous countries worldwide. ped by Wyeth (later Pfizer). Oral neratinib is awaiting approval as an extended adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in the EU and in the US. Blocking HER2 function by a small molecule kinase inhibitor, such as neratinib, represents an attractive alternate strategy for the growth inhibition of HER2-positive tumours.
Ribociclib, also known as LEE011, is an orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor targeting cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin D3/CDK6 cell cycle pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4/6 inhibitor LEE011 specifically inhibits CDK4 and 6, thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, thereby arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase, suppressing DNA synthesis and inhibiting cancer cell growth. Overexpression of CDK4/6, as seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation. Ribociclib is in phase III clinical trials by Novartis for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer. Phase II clinical trials are also in development for the treatment of liposarcoma, ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, peritoneum cancer, endometrial cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Preregistration for Breast cancer (First-line therapy, Combination therapy, Late-stage disease) in the USA (PO) in November 2016.
Edaravone is a free radical scavenger developed for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)



Secnidazole (trade names Flagentyl, Sindose, Solosec) is a nitroimidazole derivative used to in the treatment of amoebiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Secnidazole and other 5-nitroimidazole drugs enter micro-organisms by passive diffusion and undergo activation by reduction of the 5-nitro group. In anaerobic micro-organisms, such as Trichomonas, Giardia and Entamoeba spp., this intracellular reduction occurs via the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase complex and results in a concentration gradient across the cell membrane which, in tum, enhances transport of the parent drug into the cell. Because the electron affinity of the 5-nitroimidazoles is greater than that of reduced ferredoxin, the drug interrupts the normal electron flow. Aerobic micro-organisms have a more positive redox potential (i.e. are more efficient electron acceptors) than secnidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles, which explains the selective toxicity of these drugs against anaerobic microorganisms. DNA is the intracellular target of the Secnidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles. Secnidazole and other 5-nitroimidazoles possess selective activity against many anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and protozoa. In general, secnidazole and metronidazole were approximately equipotent in activity against Bacteroides fragilis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica, in in vitro studies. Secnidazole is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration. Plasma drug concentrations are linear over the therapeutic dose range of 0.5 to 2g. The tolerability profile of secnidazole does not differ markedly from other 5-nitroimidazoles. The most commonly reported adverse events in clinical trials involved the gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting, glossitis, anorexia, epigastric pain and a metallic taste) and occurred in 2 to 10% of patients. A headache and dizziness were experienced by about 2% of patients. The drug was equally well tolerated in adults and children, and no adverse event required therapeutic intervention or treatment withdrawal.
Letermovir (AIC246 or MK-8228), a 3,4-dihydro-quinazoline- 4-yl-acetic acid derivative, is the prototype viral terminase complex inhibitor that is most advanced in its clinical development. The novel compound was initially developed by AiCuris. In April 2011, the drug was granted orphan drug designation for prevention of CMV disease by the European Commission. In August 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration granted it a fast track designation. In 2012, the results of Phase IIb clinical trials using letermovir in bone marrow transplant patients were presented at various international meetings, and the data were subsequently published in 2014.42 It`s continued clinical development is currently undertaken in agreement with Merck. Letermovir is highly potent in vitro and in vivo against cytomegalovirus. Because of a distinct mechanism of action, it does not exhibit cross-resistance with other antiviral drugs. It is predicted to be active against strains that are resistant to ganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir. To date, early-phase clinical trials suggest a very low incidence of adverse effects. It targets the UL56 subunit of the viral terminase complex. Letermovir is currently in Phase III development.
Abemaciclib, previously known as LY2835219, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases: CDK4 and CDK6, developed by Eli Lilly, which is in clinical trial phase III for the treatment of breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and in phase II for investigation of its treatment glioblastoma and melanoma.
(+)-alpha-Dihydrotetrabenazine (HTBZ) is an active component of tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine is a mixture of closely-related compounds (isomers) and is readily metabolized in the human body to HTBZ and related isomers. Tetrabenazine is a drug for the symptomatic treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorder and is marketed under the trade names Nitoman in Canada and Xenazine in New Zealand and some parts of Europe, and is also available in the USA as an orphan drug. (+)-alpha-Dihydrotetrabenazine and related benzo[a]quinolizines have been labeled with tritium and carbon-11 radioisotopes and used for in vitro and in vivo studies of the VMAT2 in animal and human brain. Adeptio Pharmaceuticals is developing alpha-dihydrotetrabenazine (HTBZ) for the treatment of neurological disorders. It acts by inhibiting vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), thereby blocking the transport of dopamine into axon terminals or into storage vesicles.
Vaborbactam (formerly RPX7009) is a new beta-lactamase inhibitor based on a cyclic boronic acid pharmacophore. Vaborbactam is a highly active beta-lactamase inhibitor that restores activity of meropenem and other beta-lactam antibiotics in beta-lactamase-producing bacteria, particularly KPC-producing CRE. Meropenem in combination with vaborbactam (VABOMERE) is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years and older with complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis caused by designated susceptible bacteria. The vaborbactam component of VABOMERE is a non-suicidal beta-lactamase inhibitor that protects meropenem from degradation by certain serine beta-lactamases such as Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Vaborbactam does not have any antibacterial activity. Vaborbactam does not decrease the activity of meropenem against meropenem-susceptible organisms.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Etelcalcetide (formerly velcalcetide, trade name Parsabiv) is a calcimimetic drug for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Etelcalcetide was approved (trade name Parsabiv) for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis in February, 2017. Etelcalcetide is a synthetic peptide calcium-sensing receptor agonist. It allosterically modulates the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Etelcalcetide binds to the CaSR and enhances activation of the receptor by extracellular calcium. Activation of the CaSR on parathyroid chief cells decreases PTH secretion.