U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 71 - 80 of 102012 results

Status:
First approved in 2017
Source:
MAVYRET by AbbVie;Enanta Pharmaceuticals
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Glecaprevir is a direct acting antiviral agent and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor that targets the the viral RNA replication. In combination with Pibrentasvir, glecaprevir is a useful therapy for patients who experienced therapeutic failure from other NS3/4A protease inhibitors. It demonstrates a high genetic barrier against resistance mutations of the virus. Glecaprevir is available as an oral combination therapy with Pibrentasvir under the brand name Mavyret. On 3 August 2017 the FDA approved the combination for hepatitis C treatment. Mavyret is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A). Mavyret is also indicated for the treatment of adult patients with HCV genotype 1 infection, who previously have been treated with a regimen containing an HCV NS5A inhibitor or an NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI), but not both.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Obeticholic acid (also known as INT-747), is a potent, orally bioavailable farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist. The key role of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) as a regulator of bile and cholesterol metabolism in the liver, with preclinical data from numerous studies providing strong rationale for the advancement of FXR agonists as hepatoprotective therapeutics in chronic liver disease. Obeticholic acid is marketed under the trade name Ocaliva. Ocaliva is specifically indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in combination with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in adults with an inadequate response to UDCA, or as monotherapy in adults unable to tolerate UDCA.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Velpatasvir (VEL; GS-5816) is an inhibitor of HCV NS5A protein, it demonstrated favourable in vitro and in vivo properties, including potent antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus genotypes 1 to 6 replicon, good metabolic stability, low systemic clearance, and adequate bioavailability and physicochemical properties to warrant clinical evaluation. Velpatasvir is used together with sofosbuvir in the treatment of hepatitis C infection of all six major genotypes. A once-daily, single-tablet, pangenotypic regimen comprising the HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir (sofosbuvir/ velpatasvir; Epclusa) has recently been approved for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection in the USA, EU and Canada.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Pimavanserin, marketed under the trade name Nuplazid, a non-dopaminergic atypical antipsychotic developed by Acadia Pharmaceuticals is the first and only medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis. The mechanism of action of pimavanserin in the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis is unknown. However, the effect of pimavanserin could be mediated through a combination of inverse agonist and antagonist activity at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and to a lesser extent at serotonin 5-HT2C receptors. In vitro, pimavanserin acts as an inverse agonist and antagonist at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors with high binding affinity (Ki value 0.087 nM) and at serotonin 5-HT2C receptors with lower binding affinity (Ki value 0.44 nM). Pimavanserin shows low binding to sigma 1 receptors (Ki value 120 nM) and has no appreciable affinity (Ki value >300 nM), to serotonin 5-HT2B, dopaminergic (including D2), muscarinic, histaminergic, or adrenergic receptors, or to calcium channels. Pimavanserin was approved by the FDA to treat hallucinations and delusions associated with psychosis experienced by some people with Parkinson's disease on April 29, 2016.
Trans-1-amino-3-[(18)F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (also known as Fluciclovine (18F)) was approved under brand name AXUMIN as a radioactive diagnostic agent indicated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in men with suspected prostate cancer recurrence. Besides, this radioactive compound is used in patients with cervical, ovarian epithelial or endometrial cancers. Fluciclovine F 18 is a synthetic amino acid transported across mammalian cell membranes by amino acid transporters, such as LAT-1 and ASCT2, which are upregulated in prostate cancer cells, but as was shown, this compound has a higher affinity for ASCT2 in comparison with other transporters.
Status:
First approved in 2016
Source:
XIIDRA by Sunesis Pharmaceuticals
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Lifitegrast (under brand name Xiidra) was approved as an ophthalmic solution for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease. Lifitegrast binds to the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1); a cell surface protein found on leukocytes and blocks the interaction of LFA-1 with its cognate ligand intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction is a key step in the inflammatory cascade that contributes to dry eye disease. Besides lifitegrast participates in phase II clinical trials for prevention of the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Elbasvir is an inhibitor of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Non-Structural protein 5A (NS5A). Elbasvir was approved by the FDA in January 2016 for the treatment of hepatitis C. It was developed by Merck and completed Phase III trials, used in combination with the NS3/4A protease inhibitor grazoprevir under the trade name Zepatier. Zepatier is indicated for treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection in adults.
Venetoclax (trade name Venclexta, also known as ABT-199) is a selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of BCL-2, an antiapoptotic protein. BCL-2 and its related proteins BCL-XL and MCL-1 bind to and sequester pro-apoptotic signals in the cell, causing a down-regulation of apoptosis. As an oncogene and an important regulator of apoptosis, BCL-2 overexpression therefore results in increased tumor cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy. FDA approved Venetoclax in April 2016 for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion, as detected by an FDA approved test, who have received at least one prior therapy. Also this drug in phase 3 clinical trial in combination therapy for the treatment patients with refractory myeloma and Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Common side effects include neutropenia, nausea, anemia, diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection. Major side effects include tumor lysis syndrome and severe neutropenia.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Grazoprevir is a second generation NS3/4A protease inhibitor approved in the EU and the USA for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4 infections in adult patients in combination with elbasvir (C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor) as the fixed-dose combination product Zepatier with or without ribavirin. In phase III trials, 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir/grazoprevir (fixed-dose tablet or as individual agents), taken with or without ribavirin, generally provided high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1a, 1b or 4 infection, including those with or without compensated cirrhosis, HIV co-infection, inherited blood disorders or chronic kidney disease or patients receiving opioid agonist therapy or of Japanese origin. Elbasvir/grazoprevir was generally well tolerated. Thus, elbasvir/grazoprevir, with or without ribavirin, represents an effective new option for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection, including a number of difficult-to-treat populations.
Crisaborole is a topically administered, boron-containing, anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) activity and thereby suppresses the cytokine release of TNFalpha, IL-12, IL-23 and other cytokines. PDE4 is an an enzyme that converts the intracellular second messenger 3'5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) into the active metabolite adenosine monophosphate (AMP). By inhibiting PDE4 and thus increasing levels of cAMP, crisaborole controls inflammation. The use of boron chemistry enabled synthesis of a low-molecular-weight compound (251 daltons), thereby facilitating effective penetration of crisaborole through human skin. Crisaborole is in clinical development for the topical treatment of psoriasis and being pursued for the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis. Preliminary studies in children and adults demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles. Crisaborole may represent an anti-inflammatory option that safely minimizes the symptoms and severity of AD and that can be used for both acute and long-term management.